The Palmyrene Empire (270-273), was a splinter state centered at Palmyra, that broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century. It encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor The Palmyrene Empire was ruled by Queen Zenobia, officially as regent for her son Vaballathus, who inherited the throne in 267 at age ten. In 270, Zenobia rapidly conquered most of the Roman east, attempting to maintain relations with Rome as a legitimate power The empire was ruled by Zenobia as a regent for her son Vaballathus, who became king in 267. In 270, Zenobia managed to conquer most of the Roman east in a relatively short period, and tried to maintain the relations with Rome Zenobia was the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire from 267 to 272 A.D. Under her rule, Palmyra expanded from modern Syria all the way from Iraq through Turkey and into Egypt. Although not much is known of Zenobia's ancestry, she was likely of noble descent, and may have even been a descendant of Cleopatra
The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, she became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, she had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect. She ruled over Egypt until 271, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage by Aurelian November is Warrior Women Month, and today we're going to introduce you to Zenobia, Queen Regent of the Palmyrene Empire, which is in current-day Syria. Zenobia, who is also called Bat-Zabbai, is a national hero in Syria. While regent for her young son, she launched an invasion which allowed her to rule a large chunk of the Roman East and Egypt Palmyrene Empire. The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.  77 relations: Alemanni, Alexandria, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Andreas Alföldi, Ankara, Antioch, Apamea, Syria, Apollonius of Tyana, Arabia Petraea, Augustan History, Augustus (title),. The Roman Empire by 271 CE before the reconquests of the Palmyrene Empire and Gallic Empire by Aurelian / Wikimedia Commons Rather than open rebellions, the Gallic and Palmyrene empires should be regarded as natural and common-sense reactions to the chaos into which the Roman Empire had degenerated The Palmyrene Empire (260-273) consisted of the (former) eastern Roman provinces of Syria, Palestine, and large parts of Asia Minor. This breakaway kingdom was ruled by the famous Queen Zenobia and had won many victories over the Sassanids, while repelling the Romans at the same time
My bet would go to Palmyrene empire, on basis of Sunzi. The Palmyrenes had a good dao to fight: they had been an independent client kingdom before the murder of king Odenathus and annexation by Rome, while pseudo-emperor Postumus was but an usurpe.. Syrian Why Famous: 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. Ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by Emperor Aurelian. Born: December 23, 24 , one of the four short lived breakaway states of the Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century was one that held the greatest potential of surviving as an independent state, unlike either the Gallic Empire (since the soldiers sought to rule over a united Rome rather than as just a breakaway Empire), or the longer lasting but more unlikely Britannic Empire
The Palmyrene Empire was a short-lived splinter state of the Roman Empire resulting from the Crisis of the Third Century. Named after its capital and largest city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor. The Palmyrene Empire was ruled by Queen Zenobia. Zenobia (240 - c. 275 Greek: Ζηνοβία) was a queen who ruled in the 3rd century over the Palmyrene Empire in what is today Syria.She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire.She was the second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus.Zenobia became queen of Palmyra after Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, taking over Egypt from the Romans
When Aurelian regained his strength as an emperor, he started his campaign against the Palmyrene Empire. As he marched into Asia Minor, he did not face much resistance, except in the city of Tyana. In 272 A.D., Aurelian defeated the Palmyrene army near Antiochia (at Immae). Zenobia and her general, Zabdas, fled to Emesa A chronological list of the emperors of ancient Rome, covering the Julio-Claudian, Flavian, Antonine, and Severan dynasties; the Gallic, Palmyrene, and Eastern Roman empires; and the Constantine period Zenobia: Queen of Palmyrene Empire. Conquering several of Rome's eastern provinces, Septimia Zenobia was Queen from 267/268 to 272 of the Roman colony of Palmyra (present-day Syria). The first inscription mentioning Zenobia as queen is dated two or three years after Odaenathus' death, so exactly when Zenobia assumed the title queen of. Restoring the Roman Empire (272-274) By 272 Aurelian was now in a position to reclaim the territories now belonging to the Gallic and Palmyrene Empires. He began in the East with the Palmyrene Empire ruled by the Queen Zenobia. The Palmyrene Empire consisted of Egypt, Syria, Palestine and areas of Asia Minor. It was particularly important that.
Zenobia, Queen Palmyrene Empire. Zenobia was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and. Coins for this issuer were issued from 271 until 272. Julius Aurelius Septimius Valbalathus Athenodorus was the son of a lieutenant of Gallienus, Septimius Odaenathus. This lieutenant served Gallienus well and ruled Palmyra, until he was killed under suspicious circumstances which left power in the hands of his widow Zenobia and ten-year-old. However, Zenobia's armies were no match to Aurelian's and at the Battle of Emesa in 272, Zenobia's forces were defeated and she was captured by Aurelian, thus the Palmyrene Empire would later be destroyed and returned to official Roman rule. Now in 274, with the Palmyrene Empire destroyed, Aurelian headed west and defeated the Gallic.
was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire; in 270 launched an invasion which brought most of the Roman East under her sway and culminated with the annexation of Egypt; in reaction to Roman emperor Aurelian's campaign in 272, declared her son emperor and assumed the title of empress (declaring Palmyra's secession from Rome) Zenobia was a third-century queen of Palmyra who made a bid for supreme rule in the Eastern Roman Empire. Septimia Zenobia (Btzby in Palmyrene) was born c. 240 AD in a noble family of Palmyra (Aramean: Tadmor), a rich Aramean and Arab trading city on the fringes of the Syrian Desert, dominating the caravan routes between Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine
The buildings now being destroyed were in part built and defended under her rule from the Roman general Aurelian - until the full weight of the Roman Empire came down on the region and crushed the. The coinage produced between 270 and late 271 AD proudly displayed the portraits of Aurelian and Vaballathus. In 271 AD, Vaballathus was proclaimed Augustus and Aurelian had little choice but to march against the rival Emperor and his mother. In the battle that followed, the Palmyrene Empire fell to Aurelian. Zenobia and Vaballathus were taken. In 272, Aurelian turned his attention to the lost eastern provinces of the empire, the so-called « Palmyrene Empire » ruled by Queen Zenobia from the city of Palmyra. Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor. The Syrian queen cut off Rome's shipments of grain, and in a matter. ..
Emperor Aurelian conquered Palmyra in 272. Palmyra revolted in 273 and proclaimed one Antiochus emperor. Aurelian reconquered Palmyra in 273. The Palmyrene Empire lasted for three years and the imperial title was only used for 2 years. 6) The Central African Empire lasted for 2 years 9 months, and 17 days from 4 December 1976 to 21 September 197 By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 03.18.2016 Professor of Philosophy Marist College. The Battle of Immae (272 CE) was fought between the forces of the Roman emperor Aurelian (270-275 CE) and those of the Palmyrene Empire of Zenobia (267-273 CE) resulting in a Roman victory and, ultimately, the capture of Zenobia and an end to her breakaway empire ZENOBIA (240-275) A QUEEN OF THE PALMYRENE EMPIRE IN SYRIA WHO CHALLENGED THE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE 3TH CENTURY.SHE CONQUERED EGYPT,ANATOLIA,LEBANON AN ROMAN JUDEA UNTIL FINALLY BEING DEFEATED BY ROMAN EMPEROR AURELIAN . Zenobia was a tenacious leader and tactician who challenged the Roman Empire For Aurelian in 272, he headed further east now aiming to take back the Palmyrene Empire from Zenobia and he successfully took back Asia Minor with ease and later overwhelmed Zenobia's forces in Syria defeating her but before she could flee to the Sassanids for their aid, she was found and captured, later taken to Rome as a prisoner with her. Zenobia was the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire from 267-272 A.D. Under her rule, Palmyra expanded from modern Syria all the way from Iraq through Turkey and into Egypt.. Although not much is known of Zenobia's ancestry, she is was of noble descent, and may have been a descendant of Cleopatra
Zenobia ruled the city-state of Palmyra from around 267 AD to 272 AD and, after leading a rebellion, she united much of the Eastern portion of the Roman empire under her banner. Though she was defeated in the end, her legacy lives on throughout history and she is viewed as an iconic leader. The city of Palmyra was a trade center Zenobia Vaballathus Introduction and Summary Palmyra was a trading community near the margin of the Roman and Persian empires. In A.D. 270-272, under the leadership of Zenobia, the dowager of its ruling house, and in the name of her young son Vaballathus, Palmyrene forces took control of Roman Egypt, Arabia, and parts of Asia Minor
The thing is, nobody truly knows the nature of the Palmyrene and Gallic Empires outside of perhaps, the people who actually ruled those lands at the time. While one could make an argument that they sought to declare independence from Rome (which is the view more tended towards the Palmyrene Empire), there are also arguments that those states. . The Palmyrene Empire she founded spanned most of the Roman east, from central Turkey into western Iraq and down to Egypt (then one of the richest provinces of Rome) Zenobia was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 26.. Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean (summer 272 - Downfall of Zenobia: After his victory at Immae, Aurelian marched south and decisively defeated the Palmyrenes at Emesa. Zenobia fled to Palmyra, but was captured, along with her city, by Aurelian in late summer 272. Roman rule in the East had been restored
The Gallic Empire (Latin: Imperium Galliarum ) or the Gallic Roman Empire are names used in modern historiography for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274. It originated during the Crisis of the Third Century, when a series of Roman milit Domitian who was considered to be one of the cruelest of Roman Emperors. That takes some doing when you consider Emperors like Nero and Caligula. Some recent historians have come to believe that Nero may not deserve his reputation for cruelty. The..
Septimius Antiochus (died after 273) was a Roman usurper in Syria during the 3rd century. In 272 AD Emperor Aurelian had defeated the breakaway Kingdom of Palmyra; its king Vaballathus and his mother Zenobia were in Roman captivity. In 273 AD another rebellion against Roman rule broke out in Palmyra. The rebels first approached Aurelian's. Vabalathus became king of the Palmyrene Empire in 266 following the death of his father. Initially his rule was recognized the Roman Emperor Aurelian resulting in coinages being minted depicting both figures. This ended, however, in 272/3 A.D. when Aurelian sacked Palmyra and took both Vabalathus and his mother Zenobia to Rome as hostages In 272, he turned his attention to the lost eastern provinces of the empire, the so-called Palmyrene Empire ruled by Queen Zenobia from the city of Palmyra.Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor.. Asia Minor was recovered easily; every city but Byzantium and Tyana surrendered to him with little resistance
The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus. In 271 she claimed the imperial title for herself and for her son and fought a short war with the Roman emperor Aurelian, who conquered Palmyra and captured the self-proclaimed Empress. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was. Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG - oriens Augusti: the rising sun/star of Augustus.. In 272, Aurelian turned his attention to the lost eastern provinces of the empire, the so-called Palmyrene Empire ruled by Queen Zenobia from the city of Palmyra.Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large.
The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect, Tenagino Probus, who was beheaded after he led an attempt to recapture the territory. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect, Tenagino Probus, who was beheaded after he led an attempt to recapture the territory. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by Emperor Aurelian. Zenobia was born and raised in Palmyra, Syria Before the end of AD 272, the Romans stood victorious at Palmyra and Aurelian paraded Zenobia as a trophy in the streets of Rome. All the territories ruled from Palmyra were retaken by AD 273, culminating in the triumphant destruction of Palmyra itself after a renewed revolt
However, in the reign of Claudius Gothicus (268 to 270), large expanses of the Gallic Empire were restored to Roman rule. At roughly the same time, several eastern provinces seceded under the Palmyrene Empire, under the rule of Queen Zenobia. In 272, Emperor Aurelian finally managed to reclaim Palmyra and its territory for the empire. With the. 6 JulianAD 361-363. Julian cuts a fascinating figure in Roman History; he was the last pagan emperor of Rome. The only issue for Julian was that the Roman Empire had been converted to Christianity 30 years before by the Christian emperor Constantine, and his sons had continued the tradition The Roman Empire (Latin: IMPERIVM·ROMANVM) was a period of ancient Rome characterized by the rule of emperors and an autocratic form of government from the time of Augustus (27 BC) until 476 AD. The Roman Empire was permanently divided into the Western and Eastern Empires after the death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395 AD. Beginning from the rule of Augustus to the Fall of the Western Empire. Aurelian had started a campaign to reconquer the secessionist Palmyrene Empire, led by Queen Zenobia, regent of her son, King Vaballathus.The Palmyrene Empire had already conquered most of the former provinces of the Roman east, including territory spanning from Ancyra to Alexandria.. In 272, Aurelian crossed the Bosphorus and advanced quickly through Anatolia
When Aurelian became emperor in 270 he quickly realized that the policy of the Palmyrene queen was endangering the unity of the empire. It was not long before all disguises were thrown off; in Egypt Wahab-allath began to issue coins without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imiperial title, and Zenobia's coins bear the same The Gallic Empire (Latin: Imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274. It originated during the Crisis of the Third Century.. It was established by Postumus in 260 in the wake of barbarian invasions and instability in Rome, and at its height included the territories of Germania, Gaul, Britannia. Zenobia ruled the Palmyrene Empire as regent for her son Vaballathus, who had become King of Palmyra in 267. In 270 Zenobia managed to conquer most of the Roman east in a relatively short period, and tried to maintain relations with Rome 272: Aurelian defeats the Palmyrene army near Antioch and Emesa (Homs), and after a siege conquers the city of Palmyra, capturing queen Zenobia and ending the Palmyrene Empire. Aurelian spares her life
Septimia Zenobia (240-274) was the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire from 267 to 272, leading the secessionist empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.Zenobia conquered the Levant and Egypt from the Roman Empire in 270, but her empire was short-lived, being destroyed by emperor Aurelian in 272 following the Battle of Emesa.. Biography. Zenobia was born in Palmyra, Syria in 240 AD to a family. King of the Palmyrene Empire, usurper. Antiochus. 272 CE. Usurper in the Palmyrene Empire. Tacitus. 275 - 276 CE. He had no authority among the soldiers and thus he died being murdered. Florianus. 276 CE. He was trying to oppose his rival, the commander of eastern legions - Marcus Aurelius Probus. He ruled for 88 days, from July to. These were the words of a Roman historian around 270 A.D. describing Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, the city of Tadmor in today's Syria, and also the name for the empire she ruled. There have been many queens who went to war. In my reading about amazing women and a recent focus on warrior queens, I discovered Zenobia ancient Rome - ancient Rome - The barbarian invasions: The Goths were Germans coming from what is now Sweden and were followed by the Vandals, the Burgundians, and the Gepidae. The aftereffect of their march to the southeast, toward the Black Sea, was to push the Marcomanni, the Quadi, and the Sarmatians onto the Roman limes in Marcus Aurelius' time palmyrene empire from 267 to 272 a d under her rule palmyra expanded from modern syria all the way from iraq through turkey and into egypt although not much is known of zenobia s ancestry she was likely of noble descent and may have even been a descendant of cleopatra' 'zenobia Queen Of Palmyra Warfare History Networ
How the Roman Empire Looked Before Aurelian's Victories. Ancient.eu. the real threat was the Gallic Empire in the West and the Palmyrene Empire in the East which had split from the Roman Empire. He knew that Palmyra, ruled by Queen Zenobia, was a greater threat, so he attacked it first. Later in 272, Aurelian defeated the Palmyrene. Zenobia (240 - c. 274) was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the.
Below is a list of Palmyrene monarchs, the monarchs that ruled and presided over the city of Palmyra and the subsequent Palmyrene Empire in the 3rd century AD, and the later vassal princes of the Al Fadl dynasty which ruled over the city in the 14th century.. House of Odaenathus . Odaenathus, the lord of Palmyra, declared himself king before riding into battle against the Sassanians after. The emperor's campaign against Zenobia got off to a good start. In late 271 or early 272, he reached Byzantium, crossed the Bosporus and entered Bithynia unopposed. The Augusta of the Palmyrene Empire had previously attempted to annex that region as well, but she and her army had been repulsed by the inhabitants
From 268 to 274, the empire itself was divided between the Gallic Empire in the west, the Roman Empire in Italy, the Balkans, and North Africa, and the Palmyrene Empire in the east. The empire was reunified by Aurelian , but it was not until Diocletian 's assumption of the throne in 284 and his ensuing reforms that the Crisis abated and. Eastern Roman Empire before being defeated by the Emperor Aurelian in 272/273 A.D. Zenobia was not only known for her beauty but for her intellectual accomplishments and her bravery in battle as well as in hunting wild beasts. 5. There is epigraphic evidence that Zenobia's marriage to her famous warrior/husband, Odainat, was of the mot'a. Palmyrene and Greek (Millar 1971:5). While Septimius Odenathus lived he held the balance of the East in his hand, for had the Palmyrene ruler not come to its aid, the Roman Empire might not have survived there. Consequently Emperor Gallienus conferred on him the titles dux Romanorum and restitutor totius Orientis (Stoneman 1994:106. . In 258 AD, the territories of Gaul, Spain, and Britain broke free of Roman control, nominating their own emperors, and calling their state the Gallic Empire. Two years later, the eastern provinces broke free, becoming the Palmyrene Empire. Among the territories that remained loyal to Rome, a number of generals fought for power
In 272, Aurelian turned his attention to the lost eastern provinces of the empire, the so-called Palmyrene Empire ruled by Queen Zenobia from the city of Palmyra. Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor. The Egyptian queen cut off Rome's shipments of grain, and in a matter of. In AD 272, Aurelian marched with his legions to defeat the Palmyrene Empire under Zenobia and Vaballathus. The Palmyrene Empire had invaded parts of Asia Minor, the Levant and Egypt. They met fierce resistance from a Roman Admiral, Tenagino Probus who had been conducting operations in the Mediterranean sea against Gothic pirates Zenobia queen of palmyrene empire. Medical Images collection features curated Rights-Managed and Royalty-Free photos and illustrations created by leading Medical & Scientific institutions, photographers and artists. Image ID: 01B469R Zenobia Vaballathus Introduction and Summary Palmyra was a trading community near the margin of the Roman and Persian empires. In A.D. 270-272, under the leadership of Zenobia, the dowager of its ruling house, and in the name of her young son Vaballathus, Palmyrene forces took control of Roman Egypt, Arabia, and parts of Asia Minor
Malkû's Persian costume was the usual state-attire of the well-to-do Palmyrene (Ingholt 1935:71) and dates the sculptural work to between AD 150 and 272. Behind Malku is a dorsaliurn, a drapery or veil suspended from two rosettes from which rise two small palm leaves In 272, Aurelian turned his attention to the lost eastern provinces of the empire, the Palmyrene Empire, ruled by Queen Zenobia from the city of Palmyra.  Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor. The Syrian queen cut off Rome's shipments of grain, and in a matter of weeks. THE EMPIRE'S RETURN. REVIVAL (270 - 305) Roman Gaul split off from the empire in 260 AD, and declared itself the Gallic Empire.Eleven years later, the Palmyrene Empire spilt off from the eastern part of the empire.. The military elevated the emperor Claudius II who began to retake Rome's lost territory. He was fairly successful, but died from plague in 270 AD - two years into his reign She was crowned as a queen of the Palmyrene Empire after his husband's death took place in 267. For a future couple of years, she started amplifying the imperium and eventually earned victory over Egypt. Queen Zenobia had ruled Egypt until she lost to the Romans In 271 AD, he defeated the Alemanni (Germanic tribes) forcing them to retreat from Italy, and then he restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire. A year later, he managed to reunite the west part of his country. When he had the situation more or less under control, it was time for his next accomplishment
Iulia Aurelia Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra is your 50th great grandmother. Zenobia (240 - c. 274) was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. Zenobia (240 - c. 274) was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire Shop ancient Palmyrene coin Emperor Aurelian and Vabalathus, c. 271 AD and more authentic and unique collectibles coins at Amazon's Collectible Coins Store The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire, following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman legions. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by Emperor Aurelian. Resources What if Aurelian ruled the Roman Empire for 20 years? Aurelian, probably the most underrated emperor, deserves a lot of credit to ending the crisis of the third century. He defeated the palmyrene and Gallic empires. He ruled only 5 years until his assassination, yet he did much to end the crisis of the third century Before reading this book, I knew little of the Palmyrene Empire (I could spell it and I knew Palmyra was Syrian) and even less about Zenobia. I had no problems getting caught up in the story and learning as I went. The reader does not have to be versed in the times or area to follow this tale. It was delightfully educational
The Roman Empire was the autocratic incarnation of ancient Rome following the end of its republican period. Its sphere of influence spanned the Mediterranean Sea, and the empire stretched from Africa in the south to the island of Britain to its north. This phase of the Roman civilization began with the rise of Augustus Caesar, who proclaimed the Empire. In doing so, he solidified the title of. By 271 AD the Roman Empire had temporarily split into three mini-empires: The Gallic in the north, the Roman in the center, and the Palmyrene in south. This sounds like Westeros' three general factions: Starks and their bannermen in the north, the Lannisters and Tyrells in the center, and Daenerys the last confirmed Targaryen in the far south-west Empire and trade in the Early Islamic periodSyria flourished under the rule of the Umayyad caliphs (658-750), who established their capital in Damascus after the Muslim Arab conquests of 635-636. Damascus became the centre of a Muslim empire that at its height stretched from the Atlantic coast to India and from Central Asia to Yemen Zenobia, in full Septimia Zenobia, Aramaic Znwbyā Bat Zabbai, (died after 274), queen of the Roman colony of Palmyra, in present-day Syria, from 267 or 268 to 272. She conquered several of Rome's eastern provinces before she was subjugated by the emperor Aurelian (ruled 270-275)