Mother and child relationship paragraph

The mother-child relationship is the only relationship one can have before entering the world. Since the sperm fertilized the egg and the human fetus began to grow, we depended on her. A mother is the first person that cares for the child, and is who the child wants when they are unhappy or uncomfortable The relationship between a mother and daughter A mother and a daughter can have an unimaginable bond or they can act like they barely like one another. A mother should always love, comfort, and support their child. A daughter should obey, listen, and respect their parent The Mother-Child Relationship Mothers and their children are connected even before birth. All those months spent together mark the beginning of a sometimes challenging, yet rewarding, relationship A parent-child relationship is a special relationship that has a huge effect on the way that the child will turn out. This relationship is formed through pregnancy, adoption, and step parenting. Parenting requires a great deal of adaptation Write an essay on mother and son relationship A mother's love is very important. A child who feels love is most likely to succeed and give it in return than a child who never received it and doesn't know what it means to be loved. In most cases, it is the mother's love, care, and understand..

The parent and child relationship have not changed much over the years. The child does not want to listen to the parent. The most common reasons for parent and child relationship problem is trust, beliefs, and knowledge. The trust between parent and child is weak because the parent and child would lie to one another The relationship between parents and their children is one of the most basic human interactions. Mothers and daughters provide both physical and emotional care for their young sons and daughters. In the process, parents will instill children with family values and goals, while teaching them the accepted norms and values of society How Mother-Son Relationship Evolves Over Years: The mother is the primary caretaker of a child in his early childhood. The first physical and emotional relationship between the mother and son is established between the two right after birth. The child depends on the mother for almost everything, and this secure attachment with the mother forms. A third of these women have children under the age of five, and a further 40% have children aged between five and ten. Baring these figures in mind, this essay will endeavour to explore the impact prison has on mothers and their children and what effects it has on the mother-child relationships

Mother-Child Relationship Essay - 1816 Word

One of the common types of relationships shared by mothers and daughters is called an enmeshed relationship. The relationship is affectionate as the mother treats her daughter as a best friend. Both of them share their interests, feelings, and many other things In paragraph 1, the narrator says, The relationship between my mother, sister and me had been cold and inimical for as long as I could remember. The narrator explains that her mother would say hurtful things and blame her for things she didn't do. The narrator also says, My sister took my mother's side against me every time

Essays Related to Mean Girls: Mother and Daughter Relationships. 1. Mother Daughter Relationship. Mother-daughter relationships can be complex, but also filled with compassion and love. Even though the wars between a mother and daughter can ravage a relationship, they can easily be recognized earlier enough to keep a relationship from. Although Miriam loves Paul as much as his mother does, Paul knows that their relationship will never live up to his relationship with his mother. Freud's theory of the Oedipus Complex focuses on a child's fixation with their parent, but Lawrence thoroughly discusses Gertrude Morel's fixation with her sons The Mother-Daughter Series is a collection of personal essays by women writers, reflecting on their relationships with their mothers. In this series you will find a cross-section of experiences - everything from women who consider their mothers a best friend, to those for whom this fundamental bond is a source of pain We'll even meet a 3-hour deadline. Sophie Caco, in Breath, Eyes, Memory, quotes her mother, There's a difference between what a person wants and what's good for them (72). In Edwidge Danticat's novel, there is conflict between what Sophie wants and what her mother, Martine, believes is good for her. While Sophie wants to live in.

Relationships between a parent and child involve a complexity of emotions and behaviors. This relationship differs between parent to parent and child to child. Relationships within the community, peers, co-workers, family and others encountered set the tone for the parent-child affair. Early parent-child relationships. 1133 Words There is a special and unmistakable connection between mothers and daughters. When a baby girl is born, the mother has an immediate connection that transcends comprehension. She knows that child is the best pieces of her. This child is connected to her as if she were her soul mate. so beautiful, rapturous, pregnant with their child

The Parent-Child Relationship is one that nurtures the physical, emotional and social development of the child. It is a unique bond that every child and parent will can enjoy and nurture. This relationship lays the foundation for the child's personality, life choices and overall behaviour Children whom have early interaction with their mother would develop mother-infant relationship which consequently develops a harmonious relationship. (Source) Furthermore, when mothers were more sensitive, their children were more empathic, more compliant with adults, and less likely to develop behavioral problems. (Sroufe& Fleeson,1988) Characteristics of each mother/daughter relationship relate to the four main themes of the novel. These being, parent/child conflict, the discovery of identity, the idea of balance and harmony as well as the use of symbolism. An example of one mother/daughter relationship in the Joy Luck Club, is that of Lindo and Waverly Jong Mother And Daughter Relationships In Jamaicaaica Kincaid's Girl By Jamaica Kincaid. The author, Jamaica Kincaid in her piece Girl, chooses to write and develop her text as a memoir to better connect with her readers. The conflicts that are expected in a mother and daughter relationship, is a relatable issue and can allow others to become. A Review of the Effects of Mother-Father Relationship on Academic Performance of Students Aming'a Robert Maina* and Kisilu Kitainge Science Education Department, School of Education, University of Eldoret, Kenya Abstract For child proper emotional maturity, mother and father's love and affection are essential requirements for child's

Conceptual Marketing Corporation - ANALYSIS INFORMATION

Essay about Mother-daughter Relationships - 2341 Words

  1. ed by the quality of attachment to the mother. Discuss, referring to relevant empirical evidence. The primal importance of a child's bond to its mother has always been recognised, and is a topic that has fascinated people for thousands of years
  2. The idea of having that good relationship with our parents is rare for most children. In this essay, I will particularly explain my relationship with my mother, which I may describe as a roller-coaster ride. When I was in the Philippines, my relationship with my mother started as rough because I was too immature to understand her
  3. Cheryl's mother was the glue, the mold that held what family she had left together. When Cheryl lost her mother, in a way she also lost the rest of her family. As her mother was dying, Cheryl was the only child to stay by her mother's side pretty much 24/7. The fact that her siblings weren't really there for their mother really bothered.
  4. A Mother is a woman who gives birth to a child or children and looks after their welfare, throughout life. She has a lifelong commitment of love, devotion and caring towards her children, that too without any prerequisites or conditions. This is the beauty of a mother - her love and sacrifice knows no bounds
  5. Children and Mothers. ear, the word Mother is magic in any language. The relationship between a child and its mother extends from the womb into a child's adulthood, and it can most certainly have an affect on the future relationships of the child. The immediate attachment that a child feels towards its mother is a well-recognized.
  6. Mother-Daughter Relationships in The Joy Luck Club In The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan explores mother-daughter relationships, and at a lower level, relationships between friends, lovers, and even enemies. The mother-daughter relationships are most likely different aspects of Tan's relationship with her mother, and perhaps some parts are entirely.

The Mother-Child Relationship Penfield Building Block

  1. Mother/Daughter Relationships In Beloved. The bond that mothers and daughters share is a bond that affects their entire lives. Lessons on life are learned by each individual during the first few days of the daughter s life. The mother is filled with high expectations for the daughter. She hopes that her life will be better than her own
  2. e here
  3. ed simultaneously, only the mother-child relationship was associated with children's depres-sion. Existent research on this topic, therefore, is either incomplete or contradictory. THE PRESENT STUDY Hypothesis The present study assesses the salience of both the father-child and the mother-child relationship for young adult offspring

The relationship between the mother and child is no accident. At times the child may reject his mother and wish he had a different one. Remember your soul made the choice for a reason. This woman can help you live your purpose. Mother Child Poetry Collections Also you can use these essays during group discussion, paragraph writing, essay writing competition on the occasion of Mother's Day or paragraph recitation while celebrating your own Mother's Birthday. My Mother Essay (200 Words) - Essay 1. My Mother possesses relentless physical stamina, throughout the day, for everyday household chores My mother knows how to keep a good relationship with neighbors and they are very pleased with her. I love my mother very much and I wish her to live long with me. My Mother: Paragraph for Class 7, 8. My mother is the person who loved me most. She is the most caring woman for me and my family. My mother's name is Sufia Khatun and she is forty. Matthew J. Dykas, Jude Cassidy, in Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 2011. C Children's emotional understanding. The parent-child relationship is widely considered to be an important context in which children learn about and begin to understand emotions (Dunn & Brown, 1994).Early parent-child relationships often include discussion of emotional states, and a number of studies.

As long as I can remember, my mother has been there for me. She took care of me when I was little like all good mothers do, but the relationship that we had as I got older was actually more important to me. As a child, I took the fact that my mother was there completely for granted. Most children do. Growing up was made easier by her love and. This sets the stage for the growing child to enter healthy relationships with other people throughout life and to appropriately experience and express a full range of emotions. An optimum opportunity Dr. Steinfeld is a developmental and behavioral pediatrician at UC Davis Medical Center and UC Davis Children's Hospital in Sacramento

Koa Whittingham, Lisa W. Coyne, in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, 2019. Attachment theory. Unlike his psychoanalytic contemporaries, and in common with contextualists, Bowlby was interested in how the environment of the child, in particular the emotional quality of the mother-child relationship, affected the child's psychological health and later adjustment (Bowlby, 1958, 1982, 1988. The CSS Parent-Child Relationships. The Parent-Child relationship of CSS means that the parent design element influences the elements within it. In a previous example, the font declaration was defined by the paragraph HTML tag ID test-paragraph Introduction. Parents play a substantial role in shaping children's emotional health, particularly in early childhood. 1 To better understand the impact of the parent-child relationship on the development of anxiety and depression in young children, research has focused on three main constructs 1) the degree to which a parent may be overprotective and/or critical, 2) parental modelling of.

Setting up child trafficking rings & child sexual abuse institutions aren't the only things Mother Teresa was hiding from the public. In fact, Mother Teresa was NOT a mother at all because she was a MALE! WAKE UP people, EVERYTHING on the planet has been INVERTED, UPSIDE DOWN, BACKWARDS, REVERSED!! CHAPTER 7 - PARENT AND CHILD RELATIONSHIP GENERALLY ARTICLE 2 - LEGITIMACY § 19-7-22 - Petition for legitimation of child; requirement that mother be named as a party; court order; effect; claims for custody or visitation; third-party action for legitimation in response to petition to establish paternity O.C.G.A. 19-7-22 (2010) 19-7-22 500 Words Essay on Mother for School Students. First of all, Mother is a word which fills everyone with emotions. A Mother is certainly the most important human being in everyone's life. Mother's Love for her child certainly cannot be compared with anything. Her level of forgiveness is unmatchable. A Mother is capable of forgiving any. Strengthening the parent-child relationships requires work and effort. Parenting is a tough job, but by maintaining a close relationship and open communication with your children, parents can stay connected to them during all stages of life.. Further, a strong parent-child connection actually makes parenting easier since children who feel more connected to their parents are more inclined to.

Paul Simon was right about the mother and child reunion being a very close bond. The parent-child relationship is qualitatively different than all of our other relationships In particular, stress theory predicts that divorce and separation, as well as repartnering, are damaging for children because family members' roles within the household, and parent-child relationships, change (Berger & Bzostek, 2014). As a result, living with a single mother, even for a prolonged period, may be less detrimental for children.

Parent-Child Relationship Essay - 1382 Words Bartleb

An Essay on the Relationship of a Mother and Her Son Kibi

Download. Essay, Pages 8 (1792 words) Views. 10275. Women have the right to be involved in the work environment just as men are. In the past mothers just stayed at home and taking care of the family, rising their children and they were not allowed to work. We do care and appreciate her efforts to create a family however, being a mother is not. No matter what parenting style we choose to use, it still boils down to the kind of relationship every parent has with their children. The stronger the parent-child relationship, the better the upbringing Respect for Parental Authority. Many researchers have suggested that the changes in parent-child relationships that occur between late childhood and early adolescence are instigated by children's growing desire to increase their sense of autonomy and independence; that is, children become less satisfied with parents' authority over their personal lives as they mature (Smetana, 1989) Mother Essay 1 (100 words) Mother is someone who cares for her off springs, feeding and nurturing them, at times protecting them from external threats. Mother of a child is a perfect example of selfless devotion and love. She could undergo any amount of penance in order to protect her child or children. Mother also acts as a mentor or guide. Attachment is one specific and circumscribed aspect of the relationship between a child and caregiver that is involved with making the child safe, secure and protected, according to the NIH

The play is set in Europe during the Thirty Years' War. Mother Courage, a canteen woman, pulls her cart with her three children (Eilif, Kattrin, and Swiss Cheese) in the wake of the army, trading with the soldiers and attempting to make profit from the war.. We are first introduced to a Recruiting Officer and a Sergeant, who complain about the difficulty of recruiting soldiers for the war From the inseparability of a mother-child relationship to the complete estrangement of one, this book is for everyone that has a mother. It's heartbr Moms. 15 writers come together to form this novel and each share a personal essay on the relationship with their mother, more specifically, what they don't talk about with them Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers specialize in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years)

Some of these essays are harrowing, some heartwarming, some — like a lot of mother-child relationships — a mix of both. All of them suggest, though, that if you can talk to your mother, you. Two Kinds Summary Two Kinds is a short story by Amy Tan that explores the conflict between Jing-mei, a first-generation American, and her mother, a Chinese immigrant Jing-mei's mother wants. relationships with the child. 2. General principles: a. Residence: The child shall reside with the father 2/7 time and the mother 5/7 time, beginning no later than age 2, except that the time for beginning this arrangement is subject to the mother's ultimate decision-making authority as to when the child is ready for such an arrangement Paragraph on My Father - 150 Words for Classes 4, 5 Children. When in a marriage relationship, the couple bears a child. This is when the male companion is called a father. A father can be defined as many things, but he is an essential part of the family. He is responsible for the well-being of the family 'What My Mother And I Don't Talk About' Reveals The Ways Our Mothers Fail Us And We Fail Them A book of essays from a diverse, accomplished array of writers reveals the ways our mothers fail us.

Some of the collected essays center on near-universal aspects of mother-child relationship. Sari Botton (editor of the Never Can Say Goodbye: Writers on Their Unshakable Love for New York), for. The slave child's relationship with the parents was a very special, and many families had very strong bonds. Overall, slave families were large; some families had up to fifteen or more children, grandparents and the mother and father. In most circumstances the mother was the head of the family with regard to food, shelter, and medical areas A. Arshed. (1) Rights of Parents (and Duties of children) Islam recognises family as a basic social unit. Along with the husband-wife relationship the Parent-child relationship is the most important one. To maintain any social relationship both parties must have some clear-cut Rights as well as obligations. The relationships are reciprocal Children who are separated from their mothers early in life have different issues to deal with than those who are kept and cared for by their mothers. The relationship with the mother is the cornerstone for all future relationships. We are mammals and are meant to be close to our mothers in our early years The relationships between children and parents have been the subjects of studies of many disciplines, starting from psychology and early child development to economics and politics. Parental involvement (regarded as the interaction and assistance provided by parents to children (Blair, 2014) into the developmental.

The Barton Family. Clara Barton corresponded throughout her life with members of her immediate and extended family. Below are the names of her siblings and their children, as well as some of the extended family members represented in the Clara Barton Papers at the Library of Congress IMPROVING MOTHER/CHILD INTERACTION TO PROMOTE BETTER PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN Page 9 B. It promotes a sensitive emotional-expressive communication and interaction between the caregiver and the child, that leads to a positive emotional relationship between the two. C

Parent and Child Relationship essay

Obviously, in Two Kinds, the conflicts between Jing-mei and her mother are partially because the intense relationship between them, which comes from her wishing her daughter would live her dream. The reason why Jing-mei's mother is asking her to play piano is her mother wants her to beat Auntie Lindo's daughter in the field of music Sigmund Freud's Theory Of Attachment. 1810 Words8 Pages. Sigmund Freud (1982) also known as the Father of Psychoanalysis claimed that the mother-child connection is an unconscious bond between the infant and the primary caregiver which becomes the dominant force for a pattern of behaviors throughout the infant's entire lifespan Mother-daughter relationships often have different meanings and may be given different power in a person's life; but one of the important things to remember is that as daughters mature into. The first paragraph. Mother is the spring of tenderness, affection and safety for everyone around her. She carries her child for nine months and suffers a lot of trouble and hardships during pregnancy, until he is born on this world and start a new journey in life.She is the first the child see in this world and feels her warmth and tenderness Positive relationships between parents and children: why they're important. Children learn and develop best when they have strong, loving, positive relationships with parents and other carers.. That's because positive relationships with parents and carers help children learn about the world - whether the world is safe and secure, whether they're loved, who loves them, what happens when.


As a child grows and matures, the mother -- whether biological or a stepmother -- plays an important role in her child's development, character and attitudes, Smith said. She teaches her son how to be good to a woman by way of her relationship with the father. She's very important in teaching her son respect and about the importance of love. Child Through the Mother Under INA 101(b)(1)(D): (1) A child born out of wedlock is the child of the natural mother under INA 101(b)(1)(D). The natural mother's name on the child's birth certificate may be taken as proof of such relationship

FREE Mother Daughter Relationship Essa

8) My mother is my great motivation and because she always encourages me. 9) My life is devoted to my mother as she devoted her life to me. 10) I always pray for the health and long life of my mother. Short Paragraph on My Mother for Students. As we know that mother is an excellent example of love, affection, and sacrifice 6%, However by 1959 this figure had increased rapidly to 27.5% and by 1996 the percentage was 70%.These statistics were taken when their child under 18 years old, This essay will argue that working mothers should be supported by their families and governments by setting some laws or suggestion to support and help them to make their career and family life easier and more flexible The parent-child relationship and gender. The most common parent-child relationships in Shakespeare's plays are the father-daughter, mother-son and father-son relationship. There are several key differences between how each relationship is often portrayed. The most common relationship is likely the father-daughter relationship Parent-Child Relationships. : The Neglect of Natural Law. At the heart of King Lear lies the relationship between father and child. Central to this filial theme is the conflict between man's law and nature's law. Natural law is synonymous with the moral authority usually associated with divine justice. Those who adhere to the tenets of natural.

Introduction: Breastfeeding has been associated to an improved mother-child bond, although this link is lacking the sufficient empirical support.Aims: The aims of this study were to carry out a systematic review as a continuation to the one by Jansen et al., and to clarify the link between breastfeeding and mother-infant relationships.Materials and Methods: Data sources: A search was conducted. Three Women Describe Their Complicated Mother/Daughter Relationships. Like a mother bird who pushes her squawky little teen-bird out of the nest so that it can learn to fly, I'm going to go out on a limb here and say that, in some way, all mother-daughter relationships are complicated. Complicated does not inherently mean bad.

Mother-Son Relationship: Why It Is Important And How It

Mother-Child Program: a continuum of services and supports which aims to foster positive relationships between mothers incarcerated in women offender institutions and units and their child and to provide a supportive environment that promotes stability and continuity for the mother-child relationship. Mother-Child Program Contingency Plan. The relationships between children and parents have been the subjects of studies of many disciplines, starting from psychology and early child development to economics and politics. Parental involvement (regarded as the interaction and assistance provided by parents to children (Blair, 2014) into the developmental. CHAPTER 8 THE PARENT / CHILD RELATIONSHIP 8.1 Introduction This Chapter is one of the core chapters underlying the new children's statute. It lays the foundation for the move away from the concept of parental authority1 or power to a focus on parental and children's ri ghts and responsibilities. 2 As such the Chapter covers the codification of what is currently a large part of our private. For example, Walker and Hennig add that, It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence (p. 64)

Impacts of Imprisonment on the Mother-Child Relationshi

Relationships with your mother-in-law can be particularly trying, because women tend to stick their claws out when threatened, which is exacerbated when two women love the same man. If you can handle this article, then you may be on the way to mending your relationship with your MIL Our relationship was strained after the divorce, pulled taut to almost breaking by child support garnishments, job instability, and drunken rages. the essays in What My Mother and I Don't. Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. Honor your father and mother (this is the first commandment with a promise), that it may go well with you and that you may live long in the land. Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord

Mother-Daughter Relationship: Importance And Ways To Improv

This again is able to promote involvement of both unmarried parents in the upbringing of the child and this will promote healthy relationship between the unmarried father and the child. [ 32 ] However, this may also caused some unmarried father not to register as to avoid financial burden or emotional support from the mother {15} Surely no one needs to be reminded that Frankenstein is a book largely reminiscent of Mary Shelley's own troubled family relationships; and in support of the point, one need only turn to George Levine and U. C. Knoepflmacher's excellent collection of essays, The Endurance of Frankenstein, to find the matter well documented. 1 That an. Our Mother's Day edition of Unwind will feature four of the essays we received in a contest asking readers to describe their love for their mother-in-law in 200 words. But we wanted to featu The mother and the father are both the driving factors of the house. The mother has a prominent role in the development of the child. She is attached to the child emotionally and is the one responsible for the health and education of the child (Deutsch, 2001). A mother is closer to the child and cares to nourish that child

2199 The fourth commandment is addressed expressly to children in their relationship to their father and mother, because this relationship is the most universal. It likewise concerns the ties of kinship between members of the extended family. It requires honor, affection, and gratitude toward elders and ancestors.. Every child wants to sense this type of involvement from his or her father and mother. Without it, a child feels isolated and rejected. The foundation of the relationship crumbles. What the Research Shows Research on father-child involvement demonstrates that [6]: (1) Fathers are significant for children

She worked hard every day to provide her classroom of children the best education possible. I have seen my mother give up as she struggled to further her education, raise a family, and find a job How To Write A Character Reference Letter For Child Custody. You should begin the letter by introducing who you are. State the type of relationship you have with the parent and go on to the second paragraph. In the second and third paragraph, you will want to describe the items that you came up with while brainstorming Late 19th-century poet Jewett frames the mother-child relationship using natural imagery: a forest tree that shelters a wild, sweet bird from the north wind. When the wind calms, the bird sings for one golden hour. Recalling the song, the mother feels her heart—and the world—grow young again. 12. To Any Reader by Robert Louis Stevenso Determining Who is a Child's Legal Father. 'By 2005, this (births born outside marriage) had increased to 43 percent. Most births outside marriage were registered by both parents rather than only one parent, indicating an increase in cohabitating parents. In 2005, 84 percent of births outside marriage in England and Wales were jointly.

To Jing-mei's mother, America is the Land of Opportunity. She has high hopes that her daughter will be a great success as a prodigy. She's not precisely sure where her daughter's talents lie, but she is sure that her daughter possesses great ability — it is simply a matter of finding the right avenue for Jing-mei's talents.First, Mrs. Woo tries to mold her daughter into a child actress, but. Explore how Priestly presents and develops the relationship between Shelia and Mrs. Birling in 'An Inspector Calls'. Priestly uses dialogue and stage directions to show a void between different generations. Although Mrs. Birling is Shelia's mother she still refers to her as a 'girl[s]' Proof of Family Relationship: I-130 Petition - Family Based Green Card. You must prove that there is a family relationship between you and your relative to obtain a greencard. your husband or wife ( spouse), submit the following documentation. If either you or your spouse were previously married, submit copies of documents (divorce decrees.

FREE Mean Girls: Mother and Daughter Relationships Essa

A grounded mother my essays kids about theory methodology, the findings of this study. In all seriousness. Because theory is recognized that we cud write a chapter is more to be appreciated by native speakers add approximately 1,000 word families per year in a traditional review the goal of the argument considerably A putative mother is a female whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepmother is a female who is married to a child's father and they may form a family unit, but who generally does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child

Analysis of Relations in Sons and Lovers: [Essay Example

While one would teresa essays on compassion and mother notice. Recently, though, some journals ask authors to report these studies take a dislike of written representations, for example, reveals its deep sexism, but it began to open up space with a partner. 14755 rpnet The essays in this volume focus on family relationships--between husbands and wives, parents and children. The analyses are rooted in a theory of personality which emerges from the Rav's brilliant interpretations of biblical, talmudic, midrashic, kabbalistic and halakhic texts, as well as from his command of Western philosophy and literature A mother is, a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has given birth. [5] The extent to which it is socially acceptable for a parent to be involved in their offspring's life varies from culture to culture, however one that exhibits too little involvement is sometimes said to exhibit child neglect , [6] while one that is too. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators.